IELTS Writing Task 2: Causes/ Effects/ Solutions

This type of test requires candidates to state the causes/ effects/ solutions of a particular social problem. The topic can combine a variety of requirements. Let’s learn more about About IELTS below.

I. How To Identify Cause & Effect Forms?

In this presentation, candidates will be asked about the causes and solutions to a problem. Here are the frequently asked questions of this type of article:

– In many countries, there is a problem with declining quality of air and water from both industry and construction. What measures can be taken to prevent this?

– Consumers are faced with increasing numbers of advertisements from competing companies. To what extent do you think consumers are influenced by advertisements? What measures can be taken to protect them?

– More and more animals are on the verge of extinction and others are on endangered list. What are reasons for this? What can be done to solved this problem?

II. How to Write Causes/ Effects/ Solutions

  • Cause: Cause is partly related to human activities. People’s daily habits or customs are the sources of the reasons, and it is easy to think about the causes. Brainstorm at least two causes if the Cause part is asked.
  • Effect: Positive or negative influence on PEOPLE (Person), SOCIETY (Society), GOVERNMENT (Government), or INDIVIDUAL (Self) would be accessible sources of power on ideas. Brainstorm at least two effects if the Effect part is asked.
  • Solution: Every cause and effect has a solution to deal with. Relate cause or effect and affected ideas to suggest solutions—brainstorm solutions for the number of reasons or mentioned impacts.

1. Cause & Effect


    • Paraphrase the title again
    • Thesis statement: answer the question of the topic (generally introduce what causes/effects are there, depending on the question of the topic)

Templet: It can be seen that… This paper will focus on the causes / the consequences.


  • Body Paragraph 1: Causes
    • The topic sentence introduces the cause(s)
    •  Giving supporting sentences explain or list additional causes.
  • Body Paragraph 2 – Effects

The topic sentence provides an overview of the advantages: Several related problems can be anticipated when..

    • Talking about advantage 1: The main issue is that….. In other words,…
    • Talking about advantage 2: Another further pressure will include…..
    • Talking about advantage 3: Last but not least,…..


  • Paraphrase thesis statement and briefly summarize cause-effect.

Templet: All things considered, when it comes to the trend that…, it mainly comes from… / it results in … / it could be tackled by…

2. Cause & Solutions


    • Paraphrase the title again
    • Thesis statement: answer the question of the essay (generally introduce any causes/solutions, depending on the question of the problem)

Templet: It can be seen that… This paper will focus on the causes/ the solutions.


  • Body Paragraph 1: Causes
    • The topic sentence introduces the cause(s)
    • The following supporting sentences explain or list additional causes.
  • Body Paragraph 2 – Solutions

The topic sentence outlines the shortcomings: There are several actions that could be taken to solve the problems.

    • Talking about cons 1: First,……. It means that ……
    • Talking about cons 2: A second measure would be….. In particular, ……
    • Talking about cons 3: Finally,……. For example,…


  • Paraphrase thesis statement and summarize causes – solutions

Templet: All things considered, when it comes to the trend that…, it mainly comes from… / it results in … / it could be tackled by…

III. Sample

Some businesses find that their new employees lack basic interpersonal skills such as cooperative skills. What are the causes? Suggest some solutions.

Cooperative communication has been undermined in the present day’s world of work, with many employers claiming that their staff do not have the interpersonal skills required to handle a job well. Reasons for this include the abuse of technology and the sheltered upbringing a worker might have, and several measures could be taken to solve this problem.

Excessive use of technological devices is one reason attributable to the deterioration in interpersonal skills among workers. Technology has made verbal communication redundant; many aspects of our life, from ordering a pizza, socializing with friends, learning a new language or even physical training can be done without conversations.

As a result, workers nowadays, especially young ones, find themselves unaccustomed to talking to their colleagues in person, or prefer conversing digitally.

Furthermore, young people in recent years appear to be overprotected compared to their predecessors 10-20 years ago. Research indicates that today’s millennials, especially in collectivistic countries, are more inclined towards living under the protection of their parents.

In other cases, some parents adopt a very easy-going approach that allows their children to do whatever they want to. Such safeguarding and permissiveness may result in either an inhibited worker who is unable to strike up a proper conversation, or a self-centered one who does not want to cooperate with others in assignments that require teamwork.

One solution to this problem would be to promote digital wellbeing, that is, to know how to harness technology in a moderate manner. Having a 30-day no-social-media challenge among workers in a company, for example, would be a fun way of reducing the amount of time wasted for social networking sites.

Public places such as parking spaces or cafeterias can also help by setting up boards and signs with inspirational words promoting the power of interpersonal communication and teamwork.

From an educational perspective, parents and teachers should take a less protective, more group-engaging approach towards teaching youngsters.

Children should be taught to work in groups so that they can socialize more with their friends and cherish collaboration. Early exposure to different personality traits can help a person be much better prepared for their future career.

In conclusion, misuse of technology and families’ overprotection are the two main reasons for the lack of interpersonal skills among workers. Promoting moderate use of technology and early education can be viewed as efficient ways of alleviating this problem.


  • undermine (v): to weaken
  • sheltered upbringing (n) sheltered upbringing
  • verbal communication (n): verbal communication
  • unaccustomed to (ving) (adj): unfamiliar with
  • converse (v): talk, communicate
  • predecessor (n): the forerunner, the previous generation
  • collectivistic (adj): is collective, community (as opposed to individualistic)
  • safeguarding (n): protection
  • inhibited (adj): shy, afraid to communicate
  • self-centered (adj): selfish, self-important
  • digital wellbeing (n): healthy use of technology
  • harness (v) technology: make use of technology
  • cherish (v): treasure

Vocabulary often used in the form of Cause & Effect

  • A cause of/ A reason for X
  • Affects/ influences
  • Leads to/ gives rise to/ brings about
  • To be affected/ influenced by X
  • To be caused by/ produced by/ result from X
  • To be a consequence of/ to be a result of/ to be due to the effect of X
  • As a result of/ As a consequence of X: According to the consequences that X brings
  • consequently,/ Thus,/ Therefore,/ Hence,/ For this reason
  • Owing to/ On account of/ Because of/ Due to the fact that
  • One of the causes/ The reason is that
  • Because/ Since/ As
  • Due to this/ Because of/ Owing to X
  • Leading to X

Essay topic: Different cultures are mixing today and the world is becoming a global village. What are the consequences? What could be done to solve the problems involved?

There is currently a trend for the world to become smaller as a result of the mixing of many different cultures. This phenomenon is associated with a number of negative effects and solutions will be suggested to cope with them.
One of the most noticeable problems of this tendency is that people all around the world will have to adapt to a global culture. That means ethnic cultures will find it hard to survive, and cultural diversity will gradually be lost. For instance, people in all regions, ranging from Africa through Europe to Asia, will end up speaking English, watching Hollywood films, and eating McDonald’s fast food.
As for measures to tackle cultural problems of globalization, one possible solution is there should be courses on the beauty of each and every ethnic culture. For example, in Vietnam, many different courses should be opened in big cities to give people a chance to have access to the Vietnamese culture, the Thai culture, or the Brazilian culture in terms of cuisine. Such courses could help the general public to realize the necessity to retain cultural diversity in this rapidly-changing modern world.
In addition, individuals should raise their own awareness of the importance of their own culture as well as other cultures. This could be carried out in many ways, especially with the help of social media channels such as Facebook or Instagram. People from all countries around the globe could share pictures or videos of their unique cultures, and, through such sharing, they can appreciate and respect other cultures, not only their own.

In conclusion, there are many adverse effects of sharing one common culture, but the most serious problem is the disappearance of ethnic cultures. This could be solved by organizing cultural courses by the government and sharing information about many different cultures by individuals.


Essay topic: More and more young people commit serious crimes.
Question: Why is this the case?

Have you ever wondered why a growing number of youngsters commit serious offences? To the best of my knowledge, there are a number of reasons for this phenomenon.

In the first place, a great number of teenagers seriously break the law because of the lack of parental care. The problem is most parents today are so busy working day and night that they cannot take sufficient care of their kids. Let us take an example: many parents are doctors who work night shifts frequently, leading to the consequence that their teenage sons or daughters are trapped in criminal activities, such as burglary or drug trafficking.

Secondly, poor education at school is a significant factor. Sadly, more and more teachers in high school or middle school today do not have a good sense of responsibility for stopping or preventing their students from unlawful acts. They just focus on teaching academic subjects without paying enough attention to kids’ behavioral problems.

Last but not least, making friends with bad people makes the young fall into criminal troubles. For instance, their friends in their neighborhood could commit petty theft and somehow influence them. From good kids, they gradually become used to, and addicted to, stealing items from others.

In conclusion, it is crystal-clear that the upward trend in young people’s severe crime rates results from three core factors. They are improper education at home and at school as well as adverse effects from bad friends.