IELTS Writing Task 2: Causes/ Effects/ Solutions

Đây là dạng bài yêu cầu thí sinh nêu ra các cause (nguyên nhân), effect (tác động) hoặc solution (giải pháp) của một vấn đề xã hội nào đấy. Đề có thể kết hợp đa dạng các yêu cầu, hãy cùng About IELTS tìm hiểu thêm dạng bài Causes/ Effects/ Solutions trong IELTS Writing Task 2 ở bên dưới nhé.

I. Làm Thế Nào Để Nhận Biết Dạng Causes/ Effects?

Ở dạng bày này, thí sinh sẽ được hỏi về nguyên nhân và giải pháp của một vấn đề. Dưới đây là những câu hỏi thường gặp dạng bài này:

– In many countries, there is a problem with declining quality of air and water from both industry and construction. What measures can be taken to prevent this?

– Consumers are faced with increasing numbers of advertisements from competing companies. To what extent do you think consumers are influenced by advertisements? What measures can be taken to protect them?

– More and more animals are on the verge of extinction and others are on endangered list. What are reasons for this? What can be done to solved this problem?

II. Cách Viết Dạng Bài Causes/ Effects/ Solutions

  • Cause: Nguyên nhân đâ phần liên quan đến những hoạt động của con người. Những thói quen thường ngày hay phong tục tập quán của con người chính những nguồn nguyên nhân rất dễ để lên ý tưởng cho nguyên nhân. Lên ý tưởng ít nhất là hai nguyên nhân nếu phần Cause được hỏi.
  • Effect: Ảnh hưởng tiêu cực hay tích cực đến PEOPLE (Người), SOCIETY (Xã hội), GOVERNMENT (Chính phủ) hay INDIVIDUAL (Bản thân) sẽ là những nguồn ảnh hưởng dễ lên ý tưởng. Lên ý tưởng ít nhất hai ảnh hưởng nếu phần Effect được hỏi.
  • Solution: Mọi nguyên nhân và ảnh hưởng đều có giải pháp để giải quyết. Liên hệ nguyên nhân hay ảnh hưởng và những đôi tưởng bị tác động đề ra những giải pháp. Lên ý tưởng cho giải pháp ứng với số nguyên nhân hay ảnh hưởng được đề cập.

1. Causes/ Effects


  • Paraphrase lại đề bài
  • Thesis statement: trả lời câu hỏi của đề bài (giới thiệu chung chung là có những causes/ effects nào, tuỳ theo câu hỏi của đề bài)

Templet: It can be seen that… This paper will focus on the causes / the consequences.


Body Paragraph 1: Causes

  • Câu topic sentence giới thiệu (các) cause
  • Các câu supporting sentences sau diễn giải hoặc liệt kê thêm ra các causes khác.

Body Paragraph 2 – Effects

Câu topic sentence giới thiệu khái quát các ưu điểm: Several related problems can be anticipated when..

  • Nói về ưu điểm 1: The main issue is that….. In other words,…
  • Nói về ưu điểm 2: Another further pressure will include…..
  • Nói về ưu điểm 3: Last but not least,…..


Paraphrase thesis statement và nói tóm tắt, tổng quát các cause – effect.

Templet: All things considered, when it comes to the trend that…, it mainly comes from… / it results in … / it could be tackled by…

2. Causes/ Solutions


  • Paraphrase lại đề bài
  • Thesis statement: trả lời câu hỏi của đề bài (giới thiệu chung chung là có những causes/solutions nào, tuỳ theo câu hỏi của đề bài)

Templet: It can be seen that… This paper will focus on the causes/ the solutions.


Body Paragraph 1: Causes

Câu topic sentence giới thiệu (các) cause
Các câu supporting sentences sau diễn giải hoặc liệt kê thêm ra các causes khác.

Body Paragraph 2 – Solutions

Câu topic sentence giới thiệu khái quát các khuyết điểm: There are several actions that could be taken to solve the problems.

  • Nói về khuyết điểm 1: First,……. It means that ……
  • Nói về khuyết điểm 2: A second measure would be….. In particular, ……
  • Nói về khuyết điểm 3: Finally,……. For example,…


Paraphrase thesis statement và nói tóm tắt, tổng quát các causes/ solutions

Templet: All things considered, when it comes to the trend that…, it mainly comes from… / it results in … / it could be tackled by…

III. Bài Mẫu – Causes/ Effects/ Solutions

Sample: Some businesses find that their new employees lack basic interpersonal skills such as cooperative skills. What are the causes? Suggest some solutions.

Cooperative communication has been undermined in the present day’s world of work, with many employers claiming that their staff do not have the interpersonal skills required to handle a job well. Reasons for this include the abuse of technology and the sheltered upbringing a worker might have, and several measures could be taken to solve this problem.

Excessive use of technological devices is one reason attributable to the deterioration in interpersonal skills among workers. Technology has made verbal communication redundant; many aspects of our life, from ordering a pizza, socializing with friends, learning a new language or even physical training can be done without conversations.

As a result, workers nowadays, especially young ones, find themselves unaccustomed to talking to their colleagues in person, or prefer conversing digitally.

Furthermore, young people in recent years appear to be overprotected compared to their predecessors 10-20 years ago. Research indicates that today’s millennials, especially in collectivistic countries, are more inclined towards living under the protection of their parents.

In other cases, some parents adopt a very easy-going approach that allows their children to do whatever they want to. Such safeguarding and permissiveness may result in either an inhibited worker who is unable to strike up a proper conversation, or a self-centered one who does not want to cooperate with others in assignments that require teamwork.

One solution to this problem would be to promote digital wellbeing, that is, to know how to harness technology in a moderate manner. Having a 30-day no-social-media challenge among workers in a company, for example, would be a fun way of reducing the amount of time wasted for social networking sites.

Public places such as parking spaces or cafeterias can also help by setting up boards and signs with inspirational words promoting the power of interpersonal communication and teamwork.

From an educational perspective, parents and teachers should take a less protective, more group-engaging approach towards teaching youngsters.

Children should be taught to work in groups so that they can socialize more with their friends and cherish collaboration. Early exposure to different personality traits can help a person be much better prepared for their future career.

In conclusion, misuse of technology and families’ overprotection are the two main reasons for the lack of interpersonal skills among workers. Promoting moderate use of technology and early education can be viewed as efficient ways of alleviating this problem.


undermine (v): làm cho suy yếu
sheltered upbringing (n) sự nuôi dưỡng bảo bọc
verbal communication (n): giao tiếp bằng lời nói
unaccustomed to (ving) (adj): không quen với
converse (v) nói chuyện, giao tiếp
predecessor (n) người đi trước, người thế hệ trước
collectivistic (adj) có tính tập thể, cộng đồng (trái với individualistic)
safeguarding (n) sự bảo bọc
permissiveness (n) sự dễ dãi
inhibited (adj) nhút nhát, ngại giao tiếp
self-centered (adj) ích kỉ, tự cho mình là quan trọng
digital wellbeing (n) sự lành mạnh trong việc sử dụng công nghệ
harness (v) technology: tận dụng công nghệ
cherish (v): trân trọng
early exposure (n): sự tiếp xúc sớm

Từ vựng hay dùng trong dạng bài Causes/ Effects

A cause of/ A reason for X: nguyên nhân của X
Affects/ influences: ảnh hưởng
Leads to/ gives rise to/ brings about: dẫn đến
To be affected/ influenced by X: bị ảnh hưởng bởi X
To be caused by/ produced by/ result from X: được gây ra bởi X
To be a consequence of/ to be a result of/ to be due to the effect of X: do X gây ra
As a result of/ As a consequence of X: Theo hệ quả mà X mang lại
Consequently,/ Thus,/ Therefore,/ Hence,/ For this reason: Do đó
Owing to/ On account of/ Because of/ Due to the fact that: vì
One of the causes/ The reason is that: Nguyên nhân đó là
Because/ Since/ As: vì
Due to this/ Because of/ Owing to X: Vì X
Leading to X: dẫn tới X


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Một Số Bài Mẫu Khác

Essay topic: Different cultures are mixing today and the world is becoming a global village. What are the consequences? What could be done to solve the problems involved?

There is currently a trend for the world to become smaller as a result of the mixing of many different cultures. This phenomenon is associated with a number of negative effects and solutions will be suggested to cope with them.
Body para 1
One of the most noticeable problems of this tendency is that people all around the world will have to adapt to a global culture. That means ethnic cultures will find it hard to survive, and cultural diversity will gradually be lost. For instance, people in all regions, ranging from Africa through Europe to Asia, will end up speaking English, watching Hollywood films, and eating McDonald’s fast food.
Body para 2
As for measures to tackle cultural problems of globalization, one possible solution is there should be courses on the beauty of each and every ethnic culture. For example, in Vietnam, many different courses should be opened in big cities to give people a chance to have access to the Vietnamese culture, the Thai culture, or the Brazilian culture in terms of cuisine. Such courses could help the general public to realize the necessity to retain cultural diversity in this rapidly-changing modern world.
Body para 3
In addition, individuals should raise their own awareness of the importance of their own culture as well as other cultures. This could be carried out in many ways, especially with the help of social media channels such as Facebook or Instagram. People from all countries around the globe could share pictures or videos of their unique cultures, and, through such sharing, they can appreciate and respect other cultures, not only their own.

In conclusion, there are many adverse effects of sharing one common culture, but the most serious problem is the disappearance of ethnic cultures. This could be solved by organizing cultural courses by the government and sharing information about many different cultures by individuals.

Essay topic: More and more young people commit serious crimes.
Question: Why is this the case?

Sample Essay

Have you ever wondered why a growing number of youngsters commit serious offences? To the best of my knowledge, there are a number of reasons for this phenomenon.

In the first place, a great number of teenagers seriously break the law because of the lack of parental care. The problem is most parents today are so busy working day and night that they cannot take sufficient care of their kids. Let us take an example: many parents are doctors who work night shifts frequently, leading to the consequence that their teenage sons or daughters are trapped in criminal activities, such as burglary or drug trafficking.

Secondly, poor education at school is a significant factor. Sadly, more and more teachers in high school or middle school today do not have a good sense of responsibility for stopping or preventing their students from unlawful acts. They just focus on teaching academic subjects without paying enough attention to kids’ behavioral problems.

Last but not least, making friends with bad people makes the young fall into criminal troubles. For instance, their friends in their neighborhood could commit petty theft and somehow influence them. From good kids, they gradually become used to, and addicted to, stealing items from others.

In conclusion, it is crystal-clear that the upward trend in young people’s severe crime rates results from three core factors. They are improper education at home and at school as well as adverse effects from bad friends.